Category Archives: Geography

Portugal – India: Geographical and Political Dimensions

Today Portugal supports almost all Indian efforts including UNSC permanent membership. It wants to become Gateway to Europe for India and Indian products.

Pointers on Portugal

  • Portugal is a sovereign country in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • It is the western most

Nilgiri Hills: Some facts

Salient features of Nilgiri Hills

  • It forms parts of Western Ghat shared among Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • Its northern boundary is formed by Moyar River and southern boundary by Pal Ghat
  • Moyar River separates it from Karnataka Plateau while

Maritime Zones and World Geopolitics

With the sustained efforts of U.N.O., we finally converged to a point acceptable to all most all. However, growing relevance of sea route, ocean resources and strategic significance of oceans have again increased rivalry over oceans.

Maritime zones as defined

Mesosphere: events of interests

Mesosphere is generally considered as non-event zone with the decreasing temperature with the increasing height. However, there are certain features or events that are unique to this layer of atmosphere. They are

Noctilucent Cloud:

  • They are weak cloud like

Stratosphere: a new look explanation for typical events

Why high speed jets/ aircraft prefer Stratosphere?

  • Commercial airlines typically fly at altitudes of 9–12 km (30,000–39,000 ft) which is in the lower reaches of the stratosphere in temperate latitudes. This optimizes fuel efficiency, mostly due to
  1. The low temperatures

Geography Series-1/30 for IAS Prelims-2017: Small rivers in news

Small rivers of India in news

  1. Torsa River: origin-Chumbi valley in Tibet as Machu, flows into Bhutan as Amo Chu and enters West Bengal. It passes through Jaldapara National Park in West Bengal. Torsa meets Kaljani and Kaljani meets Jamuna

Okinotorishima and EEZ: Dispute and relevance


  1. Is a Japanese uninhabited coral atoll
  2. Its dry land area is mostly made up by three concrete encasings
  3. It houses a Japanese research station.
  4. It is located on the Palau- Kyushu Ridgein the Philippines Sea, Pacific Ocean.
  5. After Japan’s

South China Sea & Nine-dash line: Pointers

South China Sea

  • It is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean
  • It encompasses an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straitsto the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres.
  • It is bordered by China in the north, Vietnam

Star’s Life and Death: Brown and Red Dwarf explained

Life and death of stars depends on

  1. The mass with which the star started
  2. If they were born with siblings nearby or not

Indicator/ Evidence of the life of star

  • Color of a star is an indicator of its temperature

Language Family & Official language of India: Constitutional and Legislative provisions

Indian language Family

The Indian languages belong to the following four linguistic groups:

  • The Indo-European family(Aryan)
  • The Dravidian family(Dravidian)
  • Austric family(Nishada)
  • Sino-Tibetan family (Kirata).

The Indo-Aryan language:

  • Spoken by 75% of Indians.
  • Its core area is known as the Khari
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